Huwebes, Hulyo 7, 2011

Animal Toxins

Scorpion venom is known to enhance the excitability of nerve and muscle cells. Some venom appears to act preferentially on muscle cells while others have effects on neurones and neurotransmitter release. Scorpion venoms have been shown to release acetylcholine, noradrenaline and serotonin. The alpha scorpion toxins delay inactivation of sodium channels and thus prolong the action potential. The beta scorpion toxins affect activation in addition to slowing inactivation of sodium channels. The sodium channel opens at a membrane potential level at which the channel would be normally closed.

Box jelly fish (blue bottles found in Australia and South East Asia), man of war (USA) and sea anemones (China)
These animals discharge stinging capsules, nematocytes, which penetrate the skin and inject venom which may cause cardiorespiratory failure. Sea anemone toxin prolongs nerve action potential and causes spontaneous and repetitive activity in axons

Sea snail: cone shells
The genus Conus includes several marine snails with beautifully cone-shaped shells. These snails found in the Pacific and Indian oceans produce an extraordinary variety of neurotoxins (alpha, mu and omega conotoxins) that are deadly to their prey and can cause fatal respiratory paralysis in humans. Alpha conotoxins are potent antagonists at the postsynaptic nicotinic receptor while the other components act on sodium and calcium channels mu Conotoxins differ from tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin as they primarily block sodium channels in skeletal muscle with less effect on action potential conduction in motor nerves. There is no specific remedy. Cardiorespiratory resuscitation and maintenance of vital function can be life saving.

Plant Toxins

Castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a plant species of the Euphorbiaceae (the evolution of this plant family is relatively unexplored) the sole member of the genus Ricinus and of the subtribe Ricininae. Its seed is the castor bean which, despite its name, is not a true bean.
Castor seed is the source of castor oil, which has a wide variety of uses. The seeds contain between 40% and 60% oil that is rich in triglycerides, mainly ricinolein. The seed coat contains Ricin, a poison, which is also present in lower concentrations throughout the plant.

Strychnine tree (Strychnos nux vomica L.) also known as Nux vomica is source of the highly poisonous alkaloids strychnine and brucine. These Chemicals List are derived from the seeds approximately 1.5% strychnine and the dried blossoms contain lesser amounts of strychnine, while the bark contains brucine.

Opium is a narcotic [analgesic] drug derived from the opium poppy. Opium derivitives, such as Morphine, were used for medicinal purposes for hundreds of years abut relatively recently, other opiate derivitives, such as Heroin, have been widely used as a [narcotic]. It has been used for centuries as a pain-releiver and, because of those properties; some opiates have developed large followings of addicts.

Miyerkules, Hunyo 15, 2011

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorder

Meeting a patient seems so a difficult task
Because a little mistake may bring misery
To the person whose intension is to lessen
The discomfort and pain that is bothering him

A welcome facial expression and a sweet smile
A comforting words and a gentle touch
May bring hope and aspiration to every one
To be united and cared by a lovable nurse

Voluntary attention and convincing words
Calm down the worried patients feeling at me
A nurse must bear in mind every day, every time
Recovery of a patient is in her hand

Martes, Mayo 17, 2011

Definition of drug testing, endocrinology, and toxicology

  • Drug testing is a biochemical analysis of the specimen like urine, hair, blood, sweat or saliva
  • Endocrinology is the study of glands and hormones of the body related to their associated disease/disorders.
  • Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living things